top of page


Sunday, April 7, 3:00 pm
Purchase Performing Arts Center
Jaime Laredo, conductor and violin
Isabelle Durrenberger, violin

(click the artists’ names above to read their bios)

J.S. Bach: Concerto for two violins in D minor, BWV 1043

I. Vivace
II. Largo, ma non tanto
III. Allegro


Beethoven: Romance No. 2 in F Major, Op. 50


Beethoven: Romance No. 1 in G Major, Op. 40


Mozart: Symphony No. 29 in A Major, K.201


I. Allegro moderato

II. Andante

III. Menuetto: Allegretto - Trio

IV. Allegro con spirito

Screen Shot 2022-10-10 at 5.32.35 PM.png

The Westchester Philharmonic’s programs are made possible, in part, by support from the New York State Council on the Arts with the support of Governor Kathy Hochul and the New York State Legislature.

Screen Shot 2022-10-10 at 5.38.02 PM.png

The Westchester Philharmonic’s programs are made possible, in part, by ArtsWestchester with support from County Executive George Latimer and the Westchester County government.


By Laurie Shulman


Concerto in D minor for two violins BWV 1043

Johann Sebastian Bach

Born 21 March, 1685 in Eisenach, Germany

Died 28 July, 1750 in Leipzig, Germany


  • Musicians call this concerto “The Bach Double”

  • Bach fused Italian concerto style with German contrapuntal technique

  • The slow movement is like an Italian Baroque opera aria

  • Listen for the intricate interweaving of the two soloists’ lines


Between 1717 and 1723, Bach was employed by Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen, a music-loving nobleman from an area northeast of Weimar in what used to be called East Germany. The position was rather similar to the one that Haydn was to hold with the Esterházy family later on in the century. When Bach was engaged as Kapellmeister, Leopold’s court boasted one of the largest and finest orchestras in Europe. Bach composed a considerable amount of instrumental music for the Cöthen musicians, including most of his solo concertos.


Bach was very interested in the Italian style of concerto writing, particularly the works of Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741). He studied Vivaldi's music avidly, sometimes copying the scores to develop greater familiarity with the style. It is no surprise that the D minor Concerto for two violins reflects certain Italian Baroque characteristics.


The three movements adhere to the Vivaldian model of fast-slow-fast tempi. Bach makes extensive use of sequences and contrast between full orchestra (ripieno) and his solo group (concertino, in this case the two violins). The presence of two soloists in the D minor concerto highlights the contrapuntal intricacy of Bach's texture. Their entrances are frequently canonic; he also makes use of invertible counterpoint, whereby the two voices exchange material, maintaining the integrity of each contrapuntal line.


The slow movement, an elegant F major cantilena in gently rocking 12/8 meter, has  particular melodic beauty. Once again, invertible counterpoint plays a significant role, but it is the suspended harmonies that enhance the operatic expressivity of this Largo.


A stormy, aggressive opening motive sets the tone for Bach’s finale, which distances itself from the dance-like finales of his solo concertos. Indeed, the relationship between concertino and ripieno is practically reversed here. The orchestra shares in the densely overlapped principal statement, a close canon that functions as a ritornello. Twice in the course of the movement, both soloists play several measures of repeated double-stops in steady eighth notes. Together, they form a chordal accompaniment to the sequential gestures the orchestra is tossing about. Bach’s abundant melodic material attests to his power of imagination.


This Double Concerto was extremely popular throughout the 19th century, after the “Bach Revival” spearheaded by Felix Mendelssohn took hold. It remains one of Bach’s best-loved instrumental compositions.


Romance No. 2 in F major for Violin & Orchestra, Op.50

Romance No. 1 in G major for Violin & Orchestra, Op. 40

Ludwig van Beethoven

Born 16 December, 1770 in Bonn, Germany

Died 26 March, 1827 in Vienna, Austria


  • Both Romances date from between 1798 to 1801

  • Delay in publication accounts for their higher opus numbers. They were also published in reverse order of composition: No. 2 was written in 1798; No. 1 in 1801

  • They were probably conceived as slow movements for a violin concerto that did not come to fruition

  • Tender and intimate, both Romances focus on the soloist’s beauty of tone

  • Think of the violin line as comparable to a soprano in an opera


Beethoven’s concerto output appears slim: five for piano, one for violin, and the so-called “Triple” concerto for piano, violin, cello and orchestra. That short list is not, however, an accurate reflection of the composer’s keen interest in concerto form. A number of Beethoven’s additional concerted works were lost or survive only in fragments, such as a 1784 piano concerto and an oboe concerto from the early 1790s. Other works were incomplete at the time of his death. There is, for example, a set of sketches for a projected sixth piano concerto.


That stated, the two Romances for violin and orchestra, Op. 40 in G and Op. 50 in F, hold a special place in the literature, because they are the only other free-standing concerto movements by Beethoven that have come down to us. We know tantalizingly little about them; as a matter of fact, for years scholars could not even agree as to when they were written. Recent watermark studies of manuscript paper have provided compelling evidence that the G major Romance dates from 1800. The F major work, although published later, may be from as early as 1798.


Possibly Beethoven intended one of them to be the slow movement of an earlier, unfinished violin concerto. Certainly both Romances were important predecessors to the Violin Concerto, Op. 61, and in that respect equal in importance to Beethoven’s violin sonatas. (Nine of the ten sonatas for violin and piano also preceded his violin concerto.)


The first Romance is more difficult than it sounds. With its exposed chorale-like opening and lack of overt display, it presents interpretive challenges to the soloist that make it difficult to bring off as a stand-alone concert piece. Beethoven’s beauty of melodic material and elegant woodwind writing make this intimate movement a small treasure in the literature. If only we had its unwritten outer movements as well!


In the late 18th century, both the German word Romanze and the French term romance meant a ballad-like song. Beethoven's choice of title is no accident.  His tempo indication for the Romance No.2 in F major, Adagio cantabile, confirms that he was thinking along vocal lines. The musical emphasis is on the soloist's upper register.  The violinist requires great beauty of sound and the most tender expression for the melodies of this Romance.


Beethoven scored both Romances for flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, solo violin and strings.



Symphony No. 29 in A major, K.201   

Wolfgang Amadè Mozart

Born January 27, 1756 in Salzburg, Austria

Died December 5, 1791 in Vienna, Austria


  • An octave dip and an appoggiatura constitute the unique opening gesture

  • Notice how different they sound when Mozart repeats the initial phrase at full volume

  • The slow movement has the intimacy of string quartet writing

  • Dotted rhythms dominate the Menuetto

  • No hunting calls appear in the finale, but it feels like a chase

  • At 28 minutes, this was Mozart’s boldest and largest scale symphony to date; only the last three symphonies (Nos. 39, 40 and 41) exceed it in length


Our knowledge of the Mozart family’s day-to-day activities is based on more than 600 family letters that have survived. Leopold Mozart wrote to his wife, Maria Anna, when he and his gifted son were traveling. Young Wolfgang wrote to his sister, his mother, his cousins, and some friends. After his move to Vienna, he continued a lively correspondence with his father and sister, who remained in Salzburg.


When the Mozart family was at home together in Salzburg, there was no need for correspondence. Consequently, very little information survives concerning Mozart's life between October 1773 and December 1774, the period from which this symphony dates. We must glean our knowledge of this fifteen-month period from other contemporary reports and records from the Salzburg Archbishop’s court – and from the compositions he wrote. Mozart’s principal focus was on the opera La finta giardiniera, K.196, which would be produced in Munich in early 1775.


Sandwiched in between bouts of concentration on the opera, he composed a tremendous amount of other music. These include four symphonies, five piano sonatas, and a number of sacred choral pieces. Mozart completed the A major Symphony on 6 April, 1774. Along with the so-called "Little G-minor" Symphony, No. 25 (K.183), this is the best known of Mozart's earlier symphonies.  It is filled with characteristic grace and humor, and indicates a musical style already fully developed, despite the composer's youth: he was still in his teens.


The first movement is especially lovely, exuberant and lighthearted, with many unexpected melodic details that give it the feeling of chamber music.  Its dipping octave, so graceful in the opening statement, takes on an altogether different character when restated forte by full orchestra. Mozart, of course, understood that musical pronunciation was an integral component of expression. The slow movement perpetuates an intimate atmosphere by muting the strings. Mozart weaves its elegant melodies together with the sort of detail one expects in a string quartet. 


Persistent dotted rhythms mark the minuet as resolute and forthright. Mozart biographer Stanley Sadie noted a contrast between its elegant melodies and an almost Beethovenian drama in “fanfare-like echoes” of the oboes and horns. Mozart's finale is rollicking, witty and full of the energy of its title, Allegro con spirito. Another prominent Mozart authority, Neal Zaslaw, is the author of a landmark book on the Mozart symphonies. He  has written:


Despite its fully-worked-out sonata form, including a development section that Einstein described as `the richest and most dramatic Mozart had written up to this time,' the Finale has the character of a chasse [hunt], with its mandatory repeated notes and other hunting-horn calls. […] In this symphony Mozart seems to have achieved a successful equilibrium between the lyrical elements and the abstract, instrumental ones.


A rising "Mannheim rocket" figures prominently as a rapidly ascending scale. Mozart endows this conclusion with a rich development section that adds surprising weight to the end of the symphony.


Mozart thought highly of this work. Two years after relocating to Vienna, he wrote to his father Leopold requesting that the score be sent to him. He clearly recognized how modern it was in his handling of the modest orchestra; its superb development of the thematic material, and the clarity of its form and articulation. He was right.


The scoring calls for oboes, horns, and strings. 




Appoggiatura - this Italian term refers to an ornamental note, usually a falling or descending note, that has a melodic connection to the note that follows. It is an expressive device that falls into the category of musical “pronunciation” known as articulation. The interpretation of an appoggiatura in vocal music is sometimes left to the singer, but in instrumental music, as in the opening melody of Mozart’s Symphony No.29, the rhythms are clearly notated.


Mannheim rocket - in the mid-18th century, the German city of Mannheim boasted the finest orchestra in Europe and became a magnet for gifted composers and performers. Mozart sought employment there – unsuccessfully – in 1777-78, but met many excellent musicians during his sojourn. Mannheim composers exerted a powerful influence on the development of symphonic and chamber music during the transition from late Baroque to early Classical style.


One signature of the Mannheim orchestral style was a rapidly rising arpeggio [broken chord] or scale used as a bold melodic gesture. Mozart adopted this gesture in several of his instrumental works. In the finale of the Symphony No.29, it occurs as a rapidly rising scale in the strings followed by a split second of silence; the effect is quite dramatic.


Program Notes by Laurie Shulman ©2023

First North American Serial Rights Only


Click here to view our roster of musicians. 


Click here to view the Westchester Philharmonic’s Board and Administration 


Join the "Phil Family" by supporting the Westchester Philharmonic today!


Contributions from friends like you play a vital role in our ability to bring you the great musical works you love, the world-class performers you admire, and the music in the classrooms that our children so richly deserve.


The easiest way to support the Phil is to have your credit card handy and make a secure contribution online here.


You may also mail a check made out to Westchester Philharmonic to:

Westchester Philharmonic

170 Hamilton Ave, Suit 350

White Plains, NY 10601


The Westchester Philharmonic is an IRS-recognized 501(c)(3) charitable organization. Tax ID #22-2474284.

It is with great respect and admiration that we acknowledge the support of those corporations and individuals who helped to make this season possible. We are grateful for your long-standing dedication and service to the Westchester Philharmonic. 


Donations are always welcome and much appreciated. To make a gift today, please use the envelope enclosed in this program and return it to the information table in the lobby, visit our website or call (914) 682-3707. 

Thank you for your vision and generosity in supporting the Westchester Philharmonic. The following list represents gifts totaling $75 or more made between October 1, 2020 to February 29, 2024. To make a contribution, call (914) 682-3707, donate online at, or mail your gift to: 

 Westchester Philharmonic 
170 Hamilton Ave, Suite 350
White Plains, NY 10601 

$50,000 and above


Horizon Kinetics

New York State Council on the Arts

Hannah Shmerler

Murray and Teddi Stahl


$20,000 - $49,999

Arnow Family Foundation

Madeleine & David Arnow

Emily Grant

Jandon Foundation 

Numa and Kaaren Rousseve

Westchester County Business First


$10,000 - $19,999

Neil and Gayle Aaron

Lisa Tibbitts

Steve Ucko

Sherry and Robert Wiener

David E. Worby


$5,000 - $9,999

Mr. & Mrs. H. Rodgin Cohen 

Leona Kern

Dr. Marjorie Lee

Sylvia and Leonard Marx

Nataly Ritter 

Lisa Robb

St. Vincent De Paul Foundation


$2,500 - $4,999

Mr. & Mrs. Warren A. Breakstone

Robin Bushman & Dr. Robert Fried

Barbara Dannenberg

Mr. & Mrs. Jeff Elliott

Jo-Ann Graham

Marty and Millicent Kaufman

The Peckham Family Foundation

Kirsti Prochelle

Esther Robbins

S&P Global


$1,000 - $2,499

Gloria Fields & Andy Seligson

Marilyn & John Heimerdinger

Joy Henshel

Phyllis Honig

Linda & Paul Landesman

Mary Ann & Peter S. Liebert, M.D.

Leonard Lowy

Mr. & Mrs. Harris Markhoff

Sylvia & Leonard Marx

Jean & Henry Pollak

Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Potash

Esther Robbins

Franklin Templeton

Fred & Beth Weiler

Lucille Werlinich

$500 - $999

Mr. and Mrs. Tony Aiello

Atlantic Legal Foundation

Richard Bobbe & Jocelyn Schuman

Dr. & Mrs. Gerald Greitzer

Mr. Jonathan Haas

Suzanne Hogan

Cyndy Shmerler & Ford Levy

Mr. & Mrs. Raina Lindholm

Pledging Foundation

Denise A. Rempe

Yvonne Tropp

Mr. & Mrs. John Werner

Rory & Joshua Worby

Jeff & Frederique Zacharia


$200 - $499


Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Bear

​Mr. & Mrs. Anthony Bloomberg

Carole M. Boccumini

Felipe Cabello & Lieselotte Hott

​Ron Carran

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Caputzal

Harry Chu

Kathy Dornbush

Rena Finkelstein

Susan Greene

Philip & Ellen Heidelberger

Mr. & Mrs. Seth Jacobs

Andrew & Deborah Jagoda

Kristina Kaufman

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Kearney

Marion Lau

Julie & Dick Leerburger

Vivienne Levenson

Ellen & Jonathan Litt

Madeleine MacIntyre

Cheryne & David McBride

Joel & Sandy Meyers

Mr. & Mrs. Robert S. Olsen

Irving & Sharon Picard

Marianne and Arnold I. Rich

​Andrea Ritchin

Rosalind Schulman

Stan & Barbara Selbst

Robert Silverson, Esq.

Howard Steinman & Barbara Birshstein

Ruth B. Toff

​Thomas Vales

Mr. Russel Watsky

$50 - $199

Shawn Amdur

Eugenia Ames

Stephen Auerbach

Robert Baensch

Judy and Fred Bomback

Valerie Katz Broza

Anthony Checetto

Edith Holly Cocuzzo

Marie & Martin Cohen

George & Theresa Edwards

Margot Elkin

Jed Feuer

Karen Gennaro

Laura Hamilton

Alan Harris

Harriet Leibowitz

Edna Lier

Peggy G. Marx

Janet & Steve Meyers

Mr. & Mrs. Daniel Miller

Therese M. Nagai

Mr. & Mrs. Sean O`Donnell

Jerome Ostrov

Harold & Sandra Samuels

Robert Sherman

Norman Solomon

Inger Tallaksen

David & Moira Tobey

Susan & Larry Tolchin

Peter D. Wolfson & Laura L. Butterfield

Dorothy J. Young

Sandra Zinman

Dorothy & Arthur Zuch

bottom of page